SMA NiTi Spring
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SMA NiTi Spring
This is the typical example to show how Nickel-Titanium alloys work: a spring under loading. Actually, this is not a spring in the classic way. It has the shape indeed but its behavior is far from that traditional spring where Hooke´s elasticity rules. Here the material arranges in the form of a spring, just that.
In this case, the lower end is fixed while the other remains free. A 5N force applies on the free end causing the deformation of the model. What actually happens is that the crystal structure changes from twinned martensite to detwinned martensite. At this point, the alloy is ready for the shape memory effect. When applying a thermal condition (+80°C) the spring gets hot and the crystal structure changes from detwinned martensite to austenite. Then the spring recovers the original shape and this is exactly what we know as shape memory effect.
This is a simulation under Ansys Workbench 18.1
1st step: 5N on one end while the other remains as a fixed support. The spring stretches in cold state.
2nd step: a thermal condition of 80ºC (over Af) is applied. The spring recovers its original shape without unloading.
-- 2 coils -- D1=0,75mm
-- D2=5,6mm -- Nickel-Titanium alloy
-- Transformation temperature Af=23ºC
-- Force applied = 5N
-- Thermal condition applied = 80ºC
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Solved simulation of a NiTi spring. File for Ansys